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    軍事
     

    加速推進聯合訓練標準化建設

    人民出版社  www.chayexinxiwang.com  2019-08-13        來源: 解放軍報 作者:王文勝

      引言 

      新軍事變革浪潮洶涌,軍用標準化戰略性、全局性、支撐性作用日益凸顯。適應軍隊組織結構日益復雜、專業分工愈加精細、聯戰聯訓逐步深入的發展趨勢,著眼推動聯合訓練真正“聯得起來、實得起來、落得下去”,迫切需要加速推進聯合訓練標準化建設,樹起標準化、規范化、精準化的實戰標桿,努力實現聯合訓練與聯合作戰的無縫對接,引領聯合訓練在標準化軌道上向更高水平發展。

      建設一流軍隊需要一流標準 

      標準體現生產力,象征軟實力。“標”是古代的一種投射武器,“準”是與其相對應的靶心。標準蘊含共同行為過程與結果的一致性,體現人類對標準化的矢志追求。標準化由習俗慣例向經驗科學演化,由工業領域向管理領域滲透,提高了生產力,增強了凝聚力。標準化水平體現科技和管理水平,一定程度代表行業和國家的綜合實力。制定生產工藝的技術標準化,能夠全面提高產品的適用性和使用效能;規范行為方式的管理標準化,則可以極大增強社會生產生活的有序性。

      軍用標準化是戰斗力的重要組成,軍事裝備標準化,能夠極大壓縮和優化品種規格,利于組織規模生產獲取最大經濟效益,便于運輸保障,從而贏得作戰先機。標準化透過技術形態影響戰爭形態,通過管理革命引發軍事變革。現代軍隊組織結構向聯合方向發展,聯合作戰戰略支援、戰役融合、戰術協同問題突出,需要基于統一的作戰目標進行規劃設計,按照統一的流程進行組織指揮,運用統一的話語體系進行溝通協調,采取統一的尺度進行檢驗評估。如何順應軍用標準化面向多維領域的發展趨勢,下好標準化建設的“先手棋”,從根本上實現軍用標準功能再造,是建設世界一流軍隊必須回答和解決的現實問題。

      聯合訓練亟待強化標準意識 

      聯合訓練是標準化最具創新性的領域。聯合訓練作為高層次的全域全要素融合性訓練,多級異地聯動、多方協同交互,需要標準化的軟硬件接口和標準化的運維適配機制做保證。

      聯合訓練領導管理體制調整變化,需要通過標準建設,引領聯合訓練管理與運行機制創新。戰區組建,聯合訓練蓬勃發展,法規建設初見成效,聯合訓練規定和聯合訓練綱目進入試行階段,聯合訓練組訓職能和參訓任務基本明確。但是如何更好地履行職能,更好地去完成任務,需要有配套標準,做出明確的目標指引、流程規范和具體工作指導。

      聯合訓練組織形態深化發展,需要通過標準建設,推進聯合訓練組訓施訓落實。聯合訓練參與對象多元,訓練空間逐步拓展,聯合訓練作為結構復雜的系統工程,必須順應標準化發展趨勢,確立標準化理念,運用標準化方法手段,在標準化的體系框架內有序運行。

      聯合訓練面臨一些現實問題,需要通過標準建設,來化解聯合訓練中的矛盾沖突。在聯合訓練實踐中還存在一些不夠科學合理的方面。比如,在聯合訓練管理層面,相對比較粗放,缺少細致的流程規范,每個崗位和人員需要完成的具體訓練內容和訓練方法還不夠明確;在聯合訓練保障方面,保障項目指標不夠具體,訓練需求分析、訓練供應保障依據不夠充分,等等。聯戰聯訓、實戰實訓要往深里走,愈發需要標準化的引領。

      明確戰訓一體的標準建設指導 

      聯合訓練標準體系,源于對未來聯合作戰的分析研究,適應聯合作戰指揮體系和聯合作戰力量體系建設,基于對現實聯合訓練的科學總結和共同認知,反映聯合訓練過程和結果特性。

      以戰領訓。牢固樹立聯為戰、練為戰理念,把戰斗力作為唯一的根本的標準,把生成提高聯合作戰能力作為聯合訓練的根本出發點和落腳點。確立鮮明實戰導向,以聯合作戰標準為參照,明確聯合訓練目標,基于目標定起點、明方位、把方向,著力把實戰需求轉化為聯合訓練組訓施訓要求,把聯合指揮流程融入聯合訓練過程,把聯合作戰行動固化為聯合訓練內容,把作戰能力標準轉化為聯合訓練考評指標。

      以聯為綱。把握聯合訓練要素組合、體系運行特點規律,按照聯合訓練由軍種向聯合、由要素向集成轉變的內在邏輯關系,調整聯合視角,找準聯合的切入點。遵循聯合作戰聚優增效制勝機理,以聯合作戰指揮機構和聯合任務部隊為主體,抓住聯合組訓施訓關鍵環節,突出聯合指揮、聯合行動演練等核心內容,厘清與軍種訓練的銜接關系,把聯合訓練標準化的重心定位在聯合的層次上。

      以實為基。緊貼聯合訓練創新實踐,抓住軍事訓練體系重塑有利契機,把標準化作為解決現實矛盾、推動聯合訓練創新的重要發力點和突破口,針對聯合訓練中的人、事、物等基本要素,突出對領導管理、組織實施、訓練保障等關鍵環節進行系統規范,最大程度增強標準的適用性與實用性。著力促進聯合訓練走細、走準、走實,有效提升聯合訓練質量效益和層次水平。

      形成科學嚴密的標準設計思路 

      聯合訓練標準體系設計應以聯合訓練任務為出發點,以提高聯合作戰能力為落腳點,以聯合訓練從起始到結束的基本過程為主線,進行統籌規劃、系統設計。

      夯實基礎確立起點。將聯合訓練質量關口前移,著眼推行聯合訓練資格認證制度,建立完善軍兵種部隊參加聯合訓練的準入機制。明確基本條件和具體要求,規定銜接聯合訓練與軍種專業訓練的必訓科目,強化聯合訓練必備基礎能力,通過高起點設計,使聯合訓練作為軍事訓練的高級階段,始終保持高效運行,避免年年打基礎、補漏洞的低層次循環。

      優化流程規范運行。聚焦戰區聯合訓練組織領導職能,把握聯合訓練組訓施訓關鍵環節,加強聯合訓練籌劃設計與督導檢查,強調依據作戰任務確定訓練課題,基于能力需求確定參訓兵力,推動作戰方案轉化為訓練演習方案,凝聚抓訓治訓整體合力。規范聯合訓練組織實施基本過程、實施步驟,理順承轉協同關系,明確訓練內容,細化組訓施訓形式和方式方法,通過標準化的路徑設計,推動聯合訓練有序運行。

      對接戰場創設條件。著眼提高聯合訓練實戰化水平,著力推進與信息化建設相協調、與使命任務要求相一致、與武器裝備相配套、與聯合作戰能力生成規律相適應,功能先進、設施完備、對接戰場的聯合訓練環境條件建設。發揮聯合訓練環境條件建設對創新訓練模式、激發訓練活力、推動實戰化訓練落實的助力支撐功能。

      精準投入集約保障。適應聯合訓練保障新特點和新要求,著眼提高聯合訓練保障集約化水平、提升聯合訓練保障質量效益,探索構建與聯合訓練體系相匹配、與供應保障能力相適應的聯合訓練保障標準體系,有力推動聯合訓練保障資源的合理配置。

      固化成果發揮效能。著眼體現聯合訓練成效、發揮聯合訓練能動作用,加強聯合訓練成果管理,形成聯合訓練從準入到結束的閉合回路,明確聯合訓練成果類型,建立聯合訓練成果梳理、轉化、使用規范。細化職能分工,具化評價指標,確保終端落實,以高質量訓練成果,牽引戰斗力建設、促進聯合訓練創新發展。

      把握辯證統一的標準建設要求 

      聯合訓練標準體系,既是訓練組織管理部門籌劃計劃、檢查督導、監察考評聯合訓練的基本規范,也是各級各類受訓對象有針對性做好訓練準備、精細化組織訓練、高標準落實訓練的目標牽引和實踐遵循。

      堅持標準與法規協調統一。標準是對法規的補充,標準與法規相輔相成。聯合訓練標準化,須以聯合作戰訓練法規為依據,緊緊圍繞基本過程,針對聯合訓練行為和結果進行具化、細化和量化設計,使聯合訓練標準與聯合作戰訓練法規有機銜接,共同構成保證聯合訓練有序運行、有效落實的規則依據。

      堅持強制性與指導性協調統一。聯合訓練是聯合作戰強力牽引下的強制性實踐活動,聯合訓練標準不可避免存在必須執行和落實的一些硬性規定和剛性指標;同時存在一些具有指導意義和起輔助作用的柔性措施和軟指標。聯合訓練標準化不能一概而論或簡單僵化處理,要從各類標準的屬性特征出發,實施分類建設,既要把硬杠杠立起來,也要把軟標準搞科學。

      堅持定性與定量協調統一。定性是定量的前提,沒有定性的定量是盲目的定量,定量能使定性更加科學準確。聯合訓練標準化,應當注重定性與定量相結合,定量指標要盡可能好統計好采集,定性指標要盡可能好評判好把握,努力構建形成以定性為主干、以定量為支撐的聯合訓練標準體系。

    責任編輯:米云港

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