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    經濟
     

    “主動做好自己的事”系列專論⑥

    夯實發展基礎 贏得競爭主動

    ——做好振興實體經濟的事

    人民出版社  www.chayexinxiwang.com  2019-08-13        來源: 經濟日報 作者:金碚

      實體經濟是國民經濟的基礎,對提供就業崗位、改善人民生活、實現經濟持續發展和社會穩定都具有重要意義。黨的十八大以來,習近平總書記在多個重要場合反復強調,“不論經濟發展到什么時候,實體經濟都是我國經濟發展、在國際經濟競爭中贏得主動的根基”,“高度重視實體經濟健康發展,增強實體經濟贏利能力”。守住本分,實實在在地振興實體經濟,推動高質量發展的步伐就能堅實穩健,中國經濟就能走向更加廣闊的未來。

      經過70年建設,特別是得益于改革開放以來的高速經濟增長,中國不僅已經成為世界第二大經濟體,而且形成了在世界所有國家中實體經濟門類最齊全的生產體系。幾乎沒有人懷疑中國實體經濟的強大實力,而我們為什么還要強烈呼吁“振興實體經濟”呢?應當說,與過去一輪實體經濟發展目標不同,當下所要實現的是實體經濟“第二次振興”,這是中國經濟發展的又一次聚力騰飛。

      振興實體經濟須發創新之力

      實體經濟的本質,是人類從自然界獲取直接有用之物,或將自然界中的無用之物轉化為有用之物,以及借助工具創造真實效用(有用服務)的活動,經濟學中稱為“生產性勞動”,可劃分為第一、二、三次產業。自然界中物質的“有用”或“無用”,并不是絕對的,而是相對于科學技術能力而言的。科學技術及生產力水平越高,自然界中的有用物質就越多。只要人類的“獲取”“轉化”“創造”能力充分發達,自然界中幾乎所有的物質都可以成為有用之物。可見,所謂實體經濟實際上就是人類基于科學發現、技術發明而從事的有用產品(包括服務產品)的研發和生產供給活動,是人類生存發展的基礎和最重要手段。

      實體經濟活動的順向邏輯過程是:科學發現、技術發明,再到產品研發,最后向市場提供有用產品。而在現實的國際分工體系中,各國實體經濟活動是可以按照比較優勢多向推進的。不少發展中國家都是循著逆向推進路徑,即先從發達國家引進技術,學習模仿,消化吸收,形成技術成熟產品的生產能力,然后向技術創新環節提升(稱為“轉型升級”),不斷積蓄生產實力和技術實力,進而再向核心技術的發明環節發力,直至進入科學發現的最核心領域。

      改革開放以來,我國實體經濟通過引進、模仿、消化、吸收,完成了各生產門類的全方位布局和規模擴張,形成了完整而龐大的國民經濟體系。目前,正在向更高水平的技術創新和原發性技術發明階段邁進,有些產業甚至已經接近于科學發現的核心領域,以及尖端科學或基礎科學理論所支撐的極端制造和尖端技術領域。所以,在創新上發力,特別是進入原創性技術創新領域,已經成為振興實體經濟新征程的核心意義和價值取向。

      創新需聚人才之力

      人才是技術創新的決定性因素。創新的突破方向和著力點越是向核心技術領域推進,越是需要進行基于基礎科學理論和尖端科學的原創性新技術創新,人才的決定性意義就愈加凸顯。當今世界,任何實體經濟強國,都無不是由良好的國民教育體系和高水平的科研體系所支撐,各有其匯聚世界人才的體制和策略“高招”。美國以其移民制度和開放的高等教育體制廣納各國人才,成為科技人才資源最豐裕的國家,德國、日本等國教育和科研水平居世界領先地位,高素質人才資源具有強大優勢,為實體經濟奠定了堅實雄厚的基礎。

      縱觀世界,國家間實體經濟的競爭,歸根結底是人才競爭;國家內部地區間的經濟發展差異,很大程度上也取決于人才差異。誰擁有優秀人才實力,誰能夠形成各層次的人才隊伍,誰就能有強大的科技創新力,就可以讓實體經濟發展占據“源頭活水”的持續性競爭優勢。

      中國作為一個發展中國家,經過數十年的不懈努力,初步形成了各類人才的梯隊格局。中國的教育體系為實體經濟發展培養儲備了較豐富的人才資源,中國培養的工程師人數已居世界前列。同時,“干中學”也是人才資源積累的一條路徑,中國龐大而完整的實體經濟體系,也為孕育和培養人才梯隊提供了實踐土壤。站在實體經濟發展的更高技術臺階上,高端人才的關鍵作用也愈加突出,對高端人才的渴求將愈加強烈。

      聚集人才之力,是實現創新發展的必由之路和當務之急。但人才也是生成時間最為長久的一種要素和關鍵力量,所謂“十年樹木,百年樹人”。同時,問題還有另一面,即人才重要性是在發揮作用中體現出來的,也就是說,在一定的系統環境中,人力資源才能真正成為現實人才。為此,我們要盡最大可能消除影響人才發揮作用的“摩擦”“梗阻”現象,避免程序形式繁瑣、無效工作負擔過重、管理成本過高,給人才“添堵”,才能讓“好鋼”真正用在“刀刃”之上,特別是用在重大科學發現和技術創新的關鍵性“刀鋒”之上。

      當前,各行業、各地區的人才意識顯著增強,延攬人才、珍惜人才蔚然成風,可以預見,在實體經濟領域中,人才集聚將形成一個十分有利的大趨勢。而進一步的努力將著力于營造發揮人才作用的體制機制和政策環境,其意義絕不亞于各地正在進行的改善營商環境的努力。

      改革激發助推之力

      實現實體經濟的第二次振興,必須深化各方面的體制改革,即以供給側結構性改革為振興實體經濟提供助推之力。

      當今世界新興產業、高技術產業層出不窮,特別是數字產業、信息技術產業、人工智能產業等呈爆發式發展態勢。這些產業的經濟主體形態和運行方式形態具有極大的域況情境特殊性(即域觀特征)和獨特域際關系,各種集團型、網絡型、平臺型、中介型、關系型、跨域型企業或企業集團將批量出現,它們的長足發展所形成的經濟(市場)空間是非勻質的和高度域態化的。為此,我們必須要看到和深刻認識到,未來實體經濟將是由具有不同域觀形態的經濟主體所構成,其體制機制均有很大的域觀特征,絕非傳統的微觀經濟學所能解釋和駕馭。我們必須以新的范式思維,進行與新興產業形態相適應的制度安排和政策設計,才能建立起有效的經濟運行機制和市場監管模式。

      改革開放以來,通過“微觀搞活+宏觀調控”,以及改革國有企業、鼓勵民營企業發展、減少政府干預、實行以貨幣政策和財政政策為主的宏觀調控體制等,為實體經濟發展提供了重要動力。而當前,除了繼續鞏固過去40年的改革成果,改革的目標和任務也必須在思路上進一步深化。實體經濟發展推動形成了具有顯著域觀結構特征的國民經濟結構態勢,對供給側結構性改革提出了向縱深領域推進的要求。所以,體制機制改革也必須再深入、再創新,以新體制新機制助推實體經濟的再振興、再騰飛。

      開放更得騰飛之力

      40年前的對外開放,激發了中國經濟發展的騰飛之勢。我們不僅從開放中獲得了資金、技術、人才和管理經驗,而且從中學會了競爭與合作;開放不僅讓中國經濟發揮出比較優勢,而且培育了日益強大的實體經濟競爭優勢。中國經濟在逐步擴大開放中實現的高速增長和規模擴張,改變了世界經濟格局的版圖,國際經濟需要實現新的平衡,未來經濟全球化態勢也將發生更加巨大的變化。

      在百年未有之大變局時代,我們把開放的大門越開越大,對中國、對世界,都具有更深刻的歷史意義和現實意義。一方面,世界各國普遍歡迎中國經濟的更大開放,不僅可以分享中國龐大市場和高速經濟增長的裨益,而且可以在中國倡導的“一帶一路”構想的實現過程中實現互利。另一方面,少數霸權國家感受到中國經濟的強大競爭壓力,擔憂霸權地位的削弱,而企圖采取遏制政策來限制中國快速發展,包括阻止中國經濟的進一步擴大開放和深度嵌入經濟全球化體系,進而進入國際分工體系的高端領域,甚至圖謀讓中國與世界體系“脫鉤”。今天的中國,既有擴大開放的相當實力和優勢,又面臨更大壓力和阻力。

      在這樣的形勢下,中國必須更加堅定繼續擴大開放的意志,即使面對霸權國家的逆全球化和反自由貿易的“制裁”“棒殺”惡行,也要以更具包容性的開放之舉來破解。不過,中國以更加包容的開放姿態和戰略舉措進一步振興實體經濟,歸根結底是為了“做好自己的事情”。任何人沒有權力妨礙中國發展自己的實體經濟、反對中國做好自己的供給側結構性改革、阻止中國經濟進一步擴大開放和更深度地融入經濟全球化體系。中國做好振興實體經濟這件“自己的事情”,同時可以惠及世界其他國家,讓人類命運共同體普遍得益。總之,中國實體經濟再次騰飛須得開放之力,方可如虎添翼,并可讓整個世界因中國之開放而更加美好。

      (作者系中國社會科學院學部委員、鄭州大學商學院院長、中國區域經濟學會會長)

      責任編輯:王熙元

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